A landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land. It has no territorial access to the seas, has limited border crossings and transit dependence. There are currently 48 such countries. Being a landlocked country creates a number of impediments in the way of a country’s development, progress and advancement. It also cuts a nation off from sea resources such as fishing and prevents direct access to seaborne trade. It is very difficult for any landlocked country to have access to the external trade and often suffers from high trade transaction costs. Due to the lack of access to seaborne trade, the economy collapses slowly and gradually which ultimately creates a precarious situation in which the poor masses are the victims. They, then, become insurgents, revolt against governments and pave the way towards waging insurgency in order to achieve their desired goals and values. 

The situation in Afghanistan, also a landlocked country reveals the same condition. The hostile neighbours, India and Pakistan, provide financial aid to the insurgents fighting for their rights in order to pursue their own interests. Hence, by doing so, the insurgents not only unequivocally fight for their rights but also fulfil the tasks given to them by the hostile neighbours. 

Last but not the least, harsh weather conditions are conducive for the insurgents in Afghanistan in the sense that the they are natives of Afghanistan are accustomed to the weather conditions but the same harsh weather conditions create hurdles for the American troops to succeed in their goals. Therefore, the landlocked countries with weak economies, hostile neighbours and harsh weather conditions are more conducive for waging insurgency. 

ASFAND BHUTTO,  

Islamabad, November 13.