Who is responsible for the immigration of people from rural to urban areas? Urbanization is considered as the sign of modernization by all. Before explaining the facts behind the migration towards urban areas, I’d like to state that urbanization is not the only prominent aspect of modernization – there are many factors under modernization but only a few will be discussed in the subjected article.

In history, every scholar had his own point of view about modernization, some emphasized that the flight of economic, social, cultural development from other regions of the world (Developed countries) to under developed countries but unfortunately, all are unattainable because of conflict in the society. Before moving to broad concept, I would like to share some facts about Pakistan regarding urbanization which are creating many problems for it’s people. Some of them include over population, unemployment, food crises and industrial decline. So much can be elaborated regarding these problems but I would choose only two of them; food crises and unemployment can reflect all. Main theme of the discussion is not only who is responsible for migration but also how all problems are emerging rapidly in the form of food crises and unemployment.

If we look at the geographic position of Pakistan, it is an agricultural country. More than 70% people are involved in the farming practices. Economic and industrial even social and cultural development or modernization is depending on agricultural expansion. Currently, agricultural production is insufficient according to the population. The low production and agricultural income are the major reasons behind the migration of farming communities toward the urban area. According to my personal experience, large areas of agricultural land have been changed into housing societies. The continuous reduction of agricultural land is escalating unemployment and food crises through the destruction of agricultural and commercial industries.

In short, agricultural development is completely based on research, agricultural extension and farming community. Research centers are responsible to produce innovative agricultural inputs including seed varieties, cultivating techniques regarding pest and disease control and basic understanding of plants. In addition, agricultural extension is responsible for technology transfer to farming community. Agricultural extension performs as a bridge between research centers and farming community and improving the farming skills.

It is a fact that the low performance of agricultural experts in the field causing migration of rural people towards the urban area. Rapid migration towards the urban areas can push the farming community to change their priorities. Therefore, it needs to develop favorable agricultural policies and high focus on the problems facing by rural people regarding agriculture facilities, infrastructure, marketing etc. On the other hand, government should also facilitate to agriculture research and extension by delivering professional trainings and programs development. Extension system should promote the capacity building of farming community with the help of participatory approach. Government should provide better health and education facilities to upgrade the living standard of the rural people.

It is a collective responsibility of agricultural institutions to mull over rapid migration of rural people towards urban areas, can slow down the cultural, social and economic progress. As a Pakistani nation, we need to promote agriculture by forestation, kitchen gardening and family farming etc. if we do not focus to promote agriculture then we all are responsible for catastrophic climate change, green house effects, food insecurity, global warming and random pattern of rain fall.

The writer is a researcher at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

The low production and agricultural income are the major reasons behind the migration of farming communities toward the urban area.