Dr Muhammad Ashfaq, Dr M Sajjad Khan and Sadaf All In Pakistan, the contribution of livestock to the agricultural sector is around 53.2 per cent that is equivalent to 11.4 per cent of national Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which grew by 4.5 per cent during 2009-10. Livestock sector employs approximately 35 million peoples and produces almost $500 million worth of products. To meet the requirements of high population growth, the production performance of livestock resources need to make more efficient. Indigenous goats and poultry is very valuable part of our livestock sector. Majority of poor rural households are rearing goats and chicken to supplement their food and income requirements. After India and China, Pakistan has the third largest population of goat. Their importance in the arid and semi-arid areas has been well known. About one third of goat population in Pakistan is being kept in the irrigated cropping system of Punjab province. Majority of poor rural households are rearing goats and chickens to supplement their food and income requirements. About 70 percent of population lives in rural areas, and majority of fanners are small or marginal. About half of rural households are landless or in possession of small amounts of land. These households are providing services to agricultural and non-agricultural sector. These families are now concerned to look for new sources of income. Animal husbandry, particularly goat rearing represents one possibility of earning an income without requiring capital or land. The main product of goat rearing is meat; goats are rarely milked and sold in the market. Goat meat is highly preferred by consumer, which is reflected by the higher market price. In addition, goats are the favored sacrificial animal on the occasion of Eid celebration. Rural households keep goats as a sideline activity, partly under zero grazing and generally in small numbers. The Beetal and Teddy goats are the traditional breeds. According to a survey conducted by the University of Agriculture Faisalabad in two districts of the Punjab province in relation to the contribution of the indigenous goat and chicken breeds in their livelihood. The results show that about 80 % goats were purebred indigenous which were being kept by the households. T.he figure shows the importance of indigenous breeds in the lives of rural households and they are generating good profits from these breeds. Goat rearing is a common practice among all the poor fanners in Pakistan and these indigenous breeds also possess many favourable traits such as disease resistance, better heat tolerance and feed conversion efficiency. However, unfortunately, very little attention has been given by the Government of Pakistan in order to conserve and sustainably use genetic diversity of indigenous livestock species for the battement of future generations. According to the global perspective regarding livestock, about 30 per cent of breeds are at risk of extinction and six breeds, worldwide, are lost each month. The diminishing biological resources will diminish food sources of the communities and this will lead to food insecurity and poverty enhancement. So there is a need from Government side to give some policy options in order to overcome this problem, otherwise this is a continuous threat for these indigenous breeds as well as for the farmers who earn a significant portion of income from this sector. Poultry in Pakistan provides employment opportunities and income for about 1.5 million people. This sector is adding value in the tune of 4.8 per cent in agriculture and livestock value addition is 9.8 per cent. The contribution of poultry meat is 24.8 per cent of the total meat production in the country. There is a huge investment of about Rs. 200 billion in this sector due to good returns to the investment. Poultry sector has shown growth rate of 8-10 percent per annum that reflects the potential of this sector. Government Poultry Development Policy has the following pillars; I. Improving regulatory framework. II. Disease control and genetic improvement in rural poultry. III. Hi-tech poultry production under environmentally controlled conditions. IV. Processing and value addition. V. Improving bio-security. VI. Need based research and development. VII. Framers training & education. Indigenous poultry is playing important role in the rural economy of Pakistan and is very valuable part of our livestock sector. Goat and Domestic/Rural Population in Pakistan Type of Livestock Units 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 Goat 000 heads 58279 59972 615655 Domestic Poultry Million No. 76.22 77.35 18.51 Cocks Million No. 9.32 9.58 9.84. Hens .Million No. 36.11 36.76 37.42 Chicken Million No. 30.79 31.02 31.25 Eggs Million No. 3611 3676 3742 Meat 000 Tons 100.41 102.40 104.43 The scavenging production system is widespread in the country. The system constitutes mostly the indigenous chickens that have many advantages. The system and the chickens are cheaper and well established in the village of the country even where resource is poor. They are also well adapted to the local environmental conditions (hot, humid, dry and rainy weather, feed and disease challenges). They have deep-rooted impact in the socio-cultural and economic profile of the rural community. However, in research, extension and development agenda the village indigenous chickens are poorly considered. Indigenous chickens and their role to curb socio-economical gaps are almost neglected here. Due to the importance of the indigenous chicken breeds in the socio-economic characteristics of pro-poor rural households, there has not been taken any initiative by the Government of Pakistan in this regard because indigenous breeds of chicken are also under a constant threat of extinction due to unplanned and haphazard crossing with exotics. It has also been learned that there is a proposal, backed by commercial poultry, to put a ban on the rearing and production of indigenous breeds of the chicken. They argued that indigenous chicken is the main cause of spreading diseases in poultry, especially the bird flu. On the contrary, all the vaccines in the country are imported by the commercial sector, which ultimately pose threat to indigenous breeds. Also, the ground reality is that indigenous chicken is the major source of income for the poor farmers and has important role in the social fabric of the villages, in general. The survey conducted by University of Agriculture, Faisalabad shows that about 50% of the poor farmers are keeping indigenous chicken for their daily source of income. This contributes appreciably to the eggs and meat availability in the country and provides employment opportunities to different segments of the rural sector where poverty is on the rise. Under scavenging condition, they grant the poor farmers with remarkable economic and nutritional benefits with little or without any inputs. Furthermore indigenous chicken provides empowerments to women and landless households by providing additional income. However, this sub-sector has received little attention in rural development and food security policy. It is also neglected from agricultural extension and development, thus its potential is under exploited and underutilized. Government should realize the importance of this sector in order to eradicate the poverty in the rural community and genetic characterization of native chicken breeds will be the first step in prioritization of breeds for conservation.