ISLAMABAD (Online) - The discovery of two powerful new HIV antibodies will help tackle HIV more effectively. Researchers will now try to exploit a newfound vulnerability on the virus to craft novel approaches to designing an AIDS vaccine. Besides, the global collaboration that led to the discovery of the two new broadly neutralising antibodies (bNAbs) are likely to produce more such antibodies. They may further reveal additional vulnerabilities of HIV, adding still more vitality to the effort to develop a vaccine against AIDS. The findings themselves are an exciting advance toward the goal of an effective AIDS vaccine because now weve got a new, potentially better target on HIV to focus our efforts for vaccine design, said Wayne Koff, senior vice-president of research and development at the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), Scripps Research Institute. And having identified this one, were set up to find more, which should further accelerate global efforts in AIDS vaccine development, he added, according to a statement from the institute. The results were published in Science this week. Scientists will replicate human brain in 10 years Within 10 years, scientists will be able to create a model that replicates the functions of the human brain says a neuroscientist. I absolutely believe it is technically and biologically possible. The only uncertainty is financial. It is an extremely expensive project and not all is yet secured, says Henry Markram, professor at the Brain Mind Institute. The brain is of course extremely complex because it has trillions of synapses, billions of neurons, millions of proteins, and thousands of genes. But they are still finite in number, says Markram. Todays technology is already highly sophisticated and it allows us to reverse engineer the brain rapidly. An example of the capability already in place is that todays robots can do screenings and mappings tens of thousands of times faster than humans. Another hurdle on the path to a model human brain is that 100 years of neuroscience discovery has led to millions of fragments of data and knowledge that have never been brought together and exploited fully. The biggest challenge is to understand how electrical-magnetic-chemical patterns in the brain convert into our perception of reality. We think we see with our eyes, but in fact most of what we 'see is generated as a projection by your brain. So what are we actually looking at when we look at something 'outside us? For Markram, the most exciting part of his research is putting together the hundreds of thousands of small pieces of data that his lab has collected over the past 15 years, and seeing what a microcircuit of the brain looks like. When we first switched it on it already started to display some interesting emergent properties. But this is just the beginning because we know now that it is possible to build it. As we progress we are learning about design secrets of our brains which were unimaginable before. In fact the brain uses some simple rules to solve highly complex problems and extracting each of these rules one by one is very exciting. For example, we have been surprised at finding simple design principles that allow billions of neurons to connect to each other. I think we will understand how the brain is designed and works before we have finished building it, Markram says. A brain model will sit on a massive supercomputer and serve as a kind of educational and diagnostic service to society. As the industrial revolution in science progresses we will generate more data than anyone can track or any computer can store, so models that can absorb it are simply unavoidable. Eating at right time a must to keep obesity at bay Eating less and exercising more to keep obesity at bay might not be enough. Now there is new evidence to show that eating at the right time is also a must for weight loss. A Northwestern University study has found that eating at irregular times, especially when the body wants to sleep, influences weight gain. How or why a person gains weight is very complicated, but it clearly is not just calories in and calories out, said Fred Turek, neurobiology and physiology professor at the Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences and director of the Centre for Sleep and Circadian Biology. The findings could have implications for developing strategies to combat obesity in humans, as the US and the world battle what has been called an obesity epidemic. More than 300 million adults worldwide are obese, including more than a third of American adults. Their schedules force them to eat at times that conflict with their natural body rhythms. This was one piece of evidence that got us thinking eating at the wrong time might be contributing to weight gain, says Arble. Simply modifying the time of feeding alone can greatly affect body weight, the researchers found, says a university statement. Mice that were fed a high-fat diet during normal sleeping hours gained significantly more weight (a 48 percent increase) than mice eating the same type and amount of food during naturally wakeful hours (a 20 percent increase).