ISLAMABAD Second International Symposium on Vacuum Science and Technology concluded on Saturday with a note to create awareness, understanding and proper utilisation of vacuum technology applications in industrial and scientific organisations of the country. Addressing the august gathering of scientists and engineers and researchers at the concluding session the chief guest, Federal Minister for Science and Technology, Mohammad Azam Khan Swati highlighted the significance of the vacuum technology and said vacuum science is employed in almost all technical, scientific and industrial establishments all over the world. In its innovative function, vacuum techniques successfully replace numerous conventional industrial processes. In addition, vacuum technology also makes a large number of modern, processes economically viable. The survival of our homeland lies in the ultimate development of Renewable Energy Technologies. This is where the members of the Pakistan Vacuum Society can help in the development of renewable energy sources. We have to join our hands to utilise the potential of this technology in achieving such level of reliability so as to export our products with pride he added. The minister said the route to progress is hampered by two factors: first, the industrial set-up in the developing countries finds it difficult to locate local experts and skilled labour in various specialised fields. Secondly, the developing nations are facing problems in getting help from the developed countries. It may be a blessing in disguise as they confront the challenges of achieving the self-reliance in many critical fields. He believed that the best possible way to achieve this purpose is through the strong interactions among the research organisations, industries, and educational institutions. It is in this respect, that we all look towards the benefits achieved from such events. Chairman of symposium, Karim Ahmed emphasised on the need to create awareness, understanding and proper utilisation of vacuum technology applications in the industrial concerns and scientific organisations. While pointing out the utility of the symposium, he said, This symposium has surely given better solutions to various vacuum related problems faced by the industrial sector. It suggested acceptable operating procedures and indicated errors, which could have been avoided during operations. Secretary of symposium in his address informed the audience that over 350 delegates participated in the symposium as well as in the four workshops held during the symposium. He pointed out that during the practical demonstrations and discussions in various workshops; a need was felt to hold such workshops very frequently. He added that the industrial establishments in general face extreme difficulty in the troubleshooting, repair and maintenance of their vacuum systems. In this regard, local expertise in these areas should be developed and separate courses may be organised with emphasis on repair, maintenance and trouble shooting.