LAHORE - A number of new disciplines have been introduced in the public and private chartered universities in the session 2008-09 reflecting the higher education in line with the world standards. A number of universities have also been elevated in the ranking by the Higher Education Commission (HEC) because of their excellence in academic and research activities. The new disciplines are not only introduced in the premier Punjab University, Fatima Jinnah University for Women Islamabad but in autonomous colleges and degree awarding institutions like Kinnaird College for Women, National College of Arts (NCA), Lahore College for Women University and Government College University and Universities of Lahore, Sargodha and Faisalabad. UMT, Superior University, Imperial and Hajveri Universities and even Navy, Air Force and Army controlled institutions have shown remarkable performance in this respect. In addition to MS, and BS (Hons) programme, enrolment in MPhil and PhD in academic and professional tracks have also been record high in 2008. Most of new disciplines were in Commerce, IT, computer science, basic sciences, telecommunication, architect, textile engineering, bio-sciences etc. The new disciplines and diploma courses have also been introduced in higher technical and engineering education at the colleges of technology and universities of engineering and technologies (UETs), Lahore and Taxila as well as TEVTA controlled institutions. The new disciplines are BS (Hons) and MS 16 years programme in bio informatics, bio-sciences, computer engineering, computer sciences, Electronics, Telecommunication Engineering, Physics, software engineering, environmental sciences technologies, Bachelor of Engineering in electronic engineering, MS in Population Sciences, Econometrics and Statistics, BS in Behavioural Sciences, defence and diplomatic studies, gender studies, Ms in Geographical Information Service (GIS) at PUICT etc. In Accounts and Commerce, Skan, ACCA, CLSH, CAT, CIMA, besides various streams of CA. The new disciplines of space technology, air space engineering, communication system engineering, material science and engineering have been started at Air University. There are eight disciplines in BBA and MBA and six in BFA in Punjab University Hailey College of Commerce. The Kinnaird introduced MS Environmental Science, MS Education Leadership and Management, MS in French Language, Applied Linguistics etc. National Defence University introduced MSc in Government and Public Policy, MSc in Peace and Conflict Studies and GCU has started MSc in Industrial Chemistry. The tuition fee in all these disciplines are lucrative and not within the affordable means. However, the enrolment is high. Some of the disciplines started in 2007 would complete their final semester in 2008.  The classes in the various disciplines of Universities have since started and classes are in full swing.