When the world experienced universalization, in the late 20th century, they revealed assimilating many universal trends in the shape of nation state, industrial hype by mass production and consumption, global social movement and many other fashions beyond the frames of boarder. However, the term 'Globalization' hits the mass interests after swift development in finance, trade, information and technology. Globalization is a phenomena of crossing borders to create a flow of goods, services, people and ideas by national and international rules to give people a chance to come closer.

Eventually, societies around the globe established closer contacts and dramatically changed the scenario. The flow of goods and capital made the world more interdependent than ever. Multinational companies and their strong hold over consumers around the world increased its domination. This prompt growing influence of dominant world has made the less developed world sorer as they were ill prepared to receive its fruits or evils. This phenomena of globalization has both positive and negative aspects capable of adverse ramification where

societies lack in dealing. Globalization paved ways of urbanization through advancement in industrial expansion.

According to experts, rate of urbanization and its attendant impacts differ as per regions, Asia contains almost half of the mega cities and rapid urbanization hitting extensively not only its demography but also environment in shape of air and water pollution. Intensive smoke producing cars, chemical omitting high chimneys and wastes through drainage lines of industrial units, untreated waste of urbanized livelihoods are used to dump in rivers and lakes, resulting pollution of surface and underground water. Furthermore, this contaminated wave of water and air also affect quality of environment of rural areas by not only damaging crops but also health

of locals.

Pakistan is an agricultural state and heavily effected by fruits of globalization, though industrial revolution hit its grounds back in 1960’s but swift sensation of urbanization effected Pakistan in late 90’s. Increased industrial activities, growing urbanization and merging rural areas in mega cities is causing patent issues related to environment. Thus rapid population shift, from rural areas to urban, increased sustainable economic development but a key determinant of environmental and ecological degradation.

According to upgraded report of Pakistan Waste Management 2018 by Project Procurement International, Pakistan generates about 48 million tons of solid waste a year, which has been increasing more than 2% annually, whereas it’s up to 77,000 ton of solid waste per day. Like other developing countries, Pakistan lacks waste management infrastructure, creating serious environmental problems because mostly municipal waste is either burned or dumped on vacant lots, threatening the health of population. Situation is this much tense that largest metropolitan cities of country, Karachi with 20,500,000 of population generates 9,400 tons of waste per day while Lahore generates 6,510 tons of waste by 10,000,000 population.

According to reports, still this huge pile of waste collection, massive amount of industrial waste is either being dumped in sea or rivers without proper treatment. According to reports, River Ravi is not only hazardous for human consumption but also harmful for crops. In 2012, Lahore High Court (LHC) was told that 1200-1400 different industries are dumping their wastes by 11 different draining points in Lahore, though later on, LHC set up a commission to investigate and recommend solutions. The commission has also recommended the construction of a bioremediation site based on artificial wetlands to treat wastewater at Babu Sabu. However,

suggestions by this commission became part of files because of lack of resources and improper attention. Even now a days, Supreme Court, Lahore registry is hearing related cases and ordered to submit report in one week on the work being done for filtration of water.

Air pollution is another key environmental issue affecting people around the globe. According to World Health Organization, 4.2 million people died per year on account of ambient air pollution due to chronic respiratory, heart, lungs cancer and many other linked disease.

According to hovering numbers, 91% of the population lives in places where air quality levels exceed WHO limits. Furthermore, this effected all developed and under-develop states alike. There is mounting evidence that concentration of particulate matter is increasing in Asia. The particulate matter represents a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles suspended in the air and hazardous. These particles are either directly emitted into the air by sources such as smoke, dust, pollen, or formed in the atmosphere by transformation of emitted gases. Out of top 50 highly populated cities of world, two major metropolitan cities, Karachi and Lahore, stands at number 6th and 42nd in list of world, over populated cities with highly polluted air for messes to inhale. Air pollution in shape of Smog has been experienced in plains of Punjab, particular in Lahore, since past many years. Even now, this man made phenomenon is spreading in many other cities those neither has much population nor have any significant industrial activities. Smog in atmosphere is due to complicated photochemical reaction occurred because of gasses, mainly Oxides of Sulphur and oxides of nitrogen, and particulate when mixed with sunlight then formed grayish or yellowish blanket and hazy cloud creating shield between Sun and Earth. As per WHO air pollution scale, Lahore carry PM10 the rate of 198 and PM2.5 gives rate of 68 at scale.

As per reading of PM10 Lahore, pose extremely high level pollution. Karachi stands at Air pollution scale with PM10 290 and PM2.5 with 88. With all this alarming data and scale information, inhaling air in this particular atmosphere would increase the chances of all chronical respiratory disease but also increase number of lungs cancer. According to another report of 2012, unfortunately Pakistan appeared with 48,449 deaths annually, which is approximately 133 per day in numbers, due to this fatal disease of cancer.

Joining hands with all nations on name of globalization or welcoming people to come for better livelihood to urbanized areas or climbing up for advancement as industrial state is no crime. Actual crime might be that violation of betrayal of nature, people committing unintentionally by giving in their share of pollution to atmosphere and thinking about a healthy future ahead. The intense environmental situation of Pakistan needs no major plans or policy but proper implication over Pakistan Environment Acts of 1995 and 97 and many other international environment treaties.

Appropriate review, revival and actions on those dusty files and plans made by previous governments and obviously resources to work on. Distributing mask to avoid smog or following initial precautionary measures for safe drinking water is not a long term solution. For effective long run plans it’s important for properly revival of environmental watchdogs to monitor and alert govt about issues and give cheap but effective

solutions to those challenges. For water pollution, the best approach would be to tighten the noose around the necks of industry owners by revamping the law to make it more stringent and punitive. Give them ultimatum to control their wastes by chimneys and drainage lines. Impose taxes and fines on those involved in serious violations beside that also acknowledge environment friendly industries. They should made it mandatory for every mill, factory or industry to use scrubbers for air filters or catalytic invertors. Made it compulsory for them as well to plant trees at specific numbers according to the size of their factory and care those plants as well. Govt should have to think on serious grounds about those coal and oil run power plants omitting filthy

smoke all the time on name of “Great-Friendship with temporary fruits”, who else is working without proper environmental checks, it’s better to shut them off or create alternate options for energy generation.

Trees and plants are cord lines for clean environment. According to GOP statistics, Pakistan has 4.2 million hectors of forest and planted trees, which equates to 4.8 percent of the total land area. Its primary duty of govt to regulate forestry department with filters of accountability. Beside this proper action is required against timber mafia is dire need of hour, to discourage them by imposing fines and punishments. Govt should encourage private entrepreneurships and individuals to come forward for modern and unique ideas related to clean environment and forestation, beside this, help them to resolve their minor issues and facilitate them if they are already working in their limited capacity or own such projects eagerly required govt attention for

expansion. Govt should give a call for students and universities to bring in their innovative industrial based environment friendly ideas and projects as well and should have encourage them. Public awareness is secondary duty of govt so far, to build a strong national perception to make sure every individual put their part of share to make their home, lane, town and city clean.

Govt should take grass root measures to teach minors (young generation) of this nation how to clean their surrounding at individual level. Its need of hour to educate children to learn dust bin not only at home but also at schools, parks and streets. We should teach our children to learn how to trash and reuse it. We must opt the tradition to discourage use of polythene bags, to avoid mass junk around, with a quality to be difficult to erode. Preparedness is better than response, especially when you cannot escape miseries. Developing state like Pakistan if receiving prompt influence of dominant world then it should also be prepared to opt other measures to avoid ills.

(PM is called as Particulate matters of liquids or solids mixed in air or floating in air. PM10 means particles less than or equal to 10 micro meters in diameters)