LAHORE - The military regimes have always been recipes for disasters, and dictatorships are never a solution to crises rather these are part of the problems, which must be stopped by evoking constitutional clauses against venturesome generals so that next-in-line commanders stop entertaining thoughts of taking over a country. Speakers concluded this here on Wednesday on the last day of the PILDAT international conference on the Civil-Military Relations. The last day comprised two sessions, followed by a round-up of the entire conference together with a set of policy options prescribed by each rapporteur, which were chaired by well-known political analysts, and addressed by local political experts. The first two sessions focused on complexities of civil-military relations and challenges to democratic consolidation. Former bureaucrat Tasneem Noorani said although the case studies presented offer a conceptual framework for an academic overview, in practical terms things were far too intricate to decipher without taking the peculiar context of our country in consideration. "It is not because of voluntary resolve that military today has taken a backseat, as in the case of Turkey and Indonesia, it is because of the incumbency factor that has made it impossible for the military to prevail," he said quoting 1971-7 period during which military was out of power. "This recess was on account of the tragic loss of East Pakistan. Conversely today, it is not out of a conscious arrangement that the civil government is allowed to resume and function," he added. He blamed politicians for rendering civilian government dysfunctional and for conniving during their political careers thus incurring trust deficit. "It is the people among the higher ranks transgressing their domains and failing to confine themselves to their constitutionally prescribed duties. Military proves to be more efficient since it is organisationally well-defined. Mismanagement and incompetence on part of civilian governments pave way for the better-organised institution of the country to take over. Many decisions taken by the military men could have been avoided had they been synthesised through proper parliamentary process," he added. Brig (r) Shaukat Qadir, while analysing the nature of the civil-military relations. "No military takes over unless the people allow the same. It is actually a coterie of people in the army that bring about the coup and thus the entire institution cannot be blamed. It is the ego of the generals that drives them to such megalomania and eventually brings them down in this cyclic process since they cannot withstand criticism," he said maintaining that that there should not be any blame game, but good governance to empower people. Former Governor Balochistan Lt.-Gen (r) Abdul Qadir Baloch said the basic aim was to ensure that the military remained at bay and democracy was allowed to perform and evolve. "Balochistan is ten times less developed today owing to the lack of proper parliamentary representation hampered by long spans of military rule. This problem needs to be addressed," he said. Former Governor Punjab Shahid Hamid, while concluding the session, blamed both civil and military for being equally responsible for failures. "Nawaz Sharif invited army, which depicts that the civilian governments have given the military the role beyond the constitution. Moreover, seniority has been violated by appointing juniors as army heads," he averred. In session-II, Professor Political Science Columbia University Aqil Shah spoke on the challenges to democratic consolidation, and was of the opinion that the structural flaws in the society remained the same and were responsible for the cyclical nature of civil-military paradigm. Defence and security analyst Dr Ayesha Siddiqua, while discussing 'A constitutional relationship between the civil and military: Roadmap for democratic government in Pakistan', concluded that a mutually fortifying umbilical cord tied civil and military institutions under military domination appeared to function in a cyclical manner. "We have to do away with elitism and essentially military elitism to tread the staircase of democracy by the process of evolution. War on terror has deepened this divide between the ruling elite and the people, who have to come out," she opined. Secretary Information PML-N Ahsan Iqbal recommended that there should be an earnest attempt to empower civil society by conscious capacity building. "Civil government should assume the role of looking into and debating on the defence budget to achieve transparency on land utilisation by the military. Moreover, we must consider revamping of the security structure of civilian governments in order to make them strong and more independent of other, stronger institutions of the country," he said adding that the Hamood-ur-Rehman Commission Report should have been implemented. "The military has developed corporate interests. The army always moved in when its corporate interests were endangered," he said quoting former COAS Jehangir Karamat. The last session 'Pakistan: The way forward' was a round up of the entire two-day conference fused with a set of recommendations presented by the rapporteurs of each session. "Let all Pakistanis unite, politicians lead, judiciary rise, free media plays its due role, army quit political arena, bureaucracy and police become neutral," were the final words. People also launched agitations in the localities of Doroghawala, Harbancepura, Model Town, Saidpur, Sabzazar, Shahdara and at Ferozewala Chowk. It has been learnt that there was very thin presence of the Lesco officials and employees at their offices on Wednesday due to threat by the people agitating on the roads against over billing and loadshedding.