According to the Article 2 (4) of the UN Charter, the use of force is prohibited against the territorial integrity and political independence of any member state. On the other hand, the Article 52 allows use of force to a state if its own sovereignty is threatened. The practical implications of the abuse of these two articles was observed by the conduct of US in the war of Iraq. The international laws are apparently applicable only to the under-developed or developing states. No hard and fast rules for the so-called 'great powers. The lines of international rules usually blur into invisibility once they want something done. And they are the only ones with the right of making armed interventions violating sovereignty of the 'lesser states if it is mandated by their interests. No one has the right to question, much less investigate the motives and circumstances that led to their intervening in sovereignty of the 'lesser states. What is the right response to interventions of the 'great powers in small, helpless states like Iraq that are unable to defend against their aggression? The shoe thrown by Iraqi journalist at US President George Bush was actually the most befitting answer. -MAHVISH MALIK, Lahore, May 27.